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268          MY    COUNTRY   AND   MY   PEOPLE

Wdlenstein and Die Rduber}. Represented also are Leasing
(Minna von Barnhelm), Freytag (Die Journalisten], Heine (&J
der Lieder, selected, and Die Harzreise) .... De la Motte-
Fouqu^'s Undine and Storm's Immensee (three translations) are
extremely popular. Hauptmann is known through his Die
Weber, Der rote Hahn, Der Biberpelz, Einsame Menschen and his
recent novel Der Ketzer von Soana (two translations), while his
Die Versunkene Glocke was once the name of a magazine. Among
others are Sudermann's Frau Sorge and more modern works
like Wedekind's Fruhlings Erwachen and Leonhard Frank's
Karl und Anna.

Apart from a few translations from Hawthorne, Mrs. Stowe,
Irving, Mark Twain and Jack London, the interest in American
literature centres around more modern works. The best known
is Upton Sinclair, whose popularity came with the tide of
Russian communist literature. Thirteen of his works have
been translated, and in this category may also be mentioned
Michael Gold's short stories and his novel, Jews Without Money.
Sinclair Lewis is represented only by Main Street, and Theodore
Dreiser by a volume of short stories, although both are well
known. Two of Eugene O'NeilFs plays (Beyond the Horizon
and The Moon of the Caribbees) have been translated. Pearl
S. Buck's The Good Earth exists in two Chinese translations, while
her Sons and short stories have also been translated.

The tide of Russian literature came in or about 1927 with
the establishment of the Nanking Government and the sup-
pression of the communist movement. For, like literary Jacob-
itism in England, which grew with the defeat of political
Jacobitism, literary Bolshevism inundated China after the
success of the Nationalist revolution. The tremendous young
enthusiasm, which helped very largely to make the Nationalist
revolution in 1926-7 a reality, was denied fields of expression
with the official suppression of the Youth Movement by the
Kuomintang, and a process of introversion took place. A
strong undercurrent was set on its way which grew from a
general dissatisfaction with the things as they are.

And so the tide turned. The trumpet call for a "revolu-
tionary literature" (synonymous with "proletariat literature")
was sounded and at oaee found a larce following Leaders of